I had a time of it attempting to install Docker on Windows 10. Here is what finally solved it for me: I shared drives:
Every time I see a ridiculous error in the setup like this it makes me suspect the entire universe involved. Windows is by far the most used operating system on the planet and the fact that Docker cannot just set itself up or at the very least report why it is failing is troubling.
Some people have reported the problems but predictably, people jumping to help offer helpful generic suggestions rather than address the specific problem.
I do not know if my fix above will fix whatever ails your installation. It worked for me, but the fact that the installation program was unable to deal with this fundamental show-stopping item makes me wonder what else is broken.